Drama Series on Broadcast Networks
Comedy Series on Broadcast Networks
Scripted Programming on Cable
Sex and Gender
Race and Ethnicity
People with Disabilities
For the first time in four years, the number of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) characters on scripted primetime broadcast television is expected to decrease, according to a study conducted by the Gay & Lesbian Alliance Against Defamation (GLAAD). The annual Where We Are on TV report forecasts the expected presence of LGBT characters for the upcoming 2011-2012 television season.
The analysis of characters for the 2011-2012 television schedule found that 2.9% of series regulars are lesbian, gay, bisexual or transgender (LGBT), down from 3.9% in 2010 and 3% in 2009. However, this is still a better figure than 2.6% in 2008 and 1.1% in 2007. LGBT characters on scripted cable television are also in decline with seven fewer regular characters than last year's count, making the total 28 for 2011-12.
This season marks the 16th year GLAAD has tracked the presence of LGBT characters and the visibility of the community they portray on television by counting their numbers in scripted primetime programs on both the broadcast and cable networks. The creation of the Where We Are on TV report in 2005 has allowed GLAAD to track trends and compile statistics for series regular characters on broadcast television with regard to sexual orientation, gender identity and race/ethnicity for the upcoming season. At the time of printing, the information found in this report is accurate, but it remains subject to change based on programming adjustments over the course of the television season. This year, the Where We Are on TV report counts characters on scripted series that started after May 31, 2011, and looks at anticipated casts for the upcoming 2011-12 season. At the end of the 2011-12 season, GLAAD will compile an in-depth analysis of the images resented on television in its sixth annual Network Responsibility Index (NRI).
Among the 647 series regulars counted this year across 91 scripted television programs on the five broadcast networks (ABC, CBS, The CW, Fox and NBC), 19 are LGBT, which is a decrease from last year's 23.
Fox is the most diverse network this year in terms of series regular LGBT characters (6.8%), with eight out of 117 series regulars being lesbian, gay or bisexual. In 2007, GLAAD found that Fox did not have any regular LGBT characters on its scripted primetime programming. This marks the first time in six years that ABC does not have the most inclusive character lineup, but the network still comes in second place despite a significant drop. Several LGBT characters on ABC have been downgraded, and several inclusive programs have been cancelled, lowering the percentage of LGBT series regulars from last year's 7.2% to 3.4% (six out of 175 characters) this season. NBC is in third place with three out of 154 characters (1.9%) being lesbian, gay or bisexual. The other network dropping significantly is The CW, which has downgraded Teddy Montgomery from 90210 to a recurring status and has not added a new LGBT character despite the cancellation of Hellcats. This season the network has only one LGBT series regular out of 67 characters (1.5%). And finally, CBS remains in last place for the fourth year in a row with just 0.7% of its regular characters (one out of 134) being LGBT.
The overall diversity of regular characters on primetime broadcast television in terms of gender diversity, racial diversity, sexual orientation and people with disabilities is still not an accurate reflection of the American population. While there have been improvements in terms of the gender divide, women still only account for 43% of series regulars on primetime broadcast television while making up more than half the US population.
Ethnic diversity in terms of regular characters remains unbalanced, as 78% of regular broadcast characters are White, 10% are Black, 6% are Latino/a, 4% are Asian/Pacific Islander and 2% are counted as "other." According to the survey conducted by the by the U.S. Census Bureau in 2010, 72% of the population is White, 13% is Black and 5% is Asian/Pacific Islander. While the Latino/a community is counted separately, it makes up 16% of the U.S. population according to the Census.
In regard to sexual orientation, of the 647 series regulars on primetime broadcast television, 628 are straight (97%). While there have been no definitive counts of the LGBT community among the U.S. population, the gay, lesbian, bisexual and transgender characters on broadcast television make for 2.9% of series regulars, which is significantly lower than many U.S. population estimates.
In terms of diversity amongst LGBT characters, broadcast networks have taken steps in the right direction but still need some improvement. For most of last season Dr. Arizona Robbins from Grey's Anatomy remained the only regular lesbian following the departure of a supporting lesbian character on the now cancelled Hellcats (The CW). However she was joined midseason by Santana Lopez on Glee (Fox) who came out as a lesbian, and this year brings newcomer Alice from The Playboy Club on NBC. The only new bisexual woman this year actually came out midseason last year. Brittany S. Pierce from Glee joins Dr. Callie Torres on Grey's Anatomy, Adrianna Tate-Duncan on 90210 (The CW), Angela Montenegro on Bones (Fox), and Kalinda Sharma on The Good Wife (CBS). Women make up 33% of LGBT characters on television, a figure that is higher than last year's 30%. Sadly, there is only one bisexual male and no transgender regular or recurring characters on scripted primetime broadcast television. The remaining 67% are almost exclusively gay men.
The ethnic diversity of LGBT characters has taken a small step back, with five characters being counted as People of Color (POC) compared to last year's six. The only newcomer is Latina character Santana Lopez on Glee, who joins The Office's (NBC) Oscar Martinez and Grey's Anatomy's Callie Torres to make up all Latino/a LGBT characters on broadcast. The LGBT Asian/Pacific Islander community saw the departure of Dr. George Huang from Law & Order: SVU (NBC) and is now represented by Angela Montenegro from Bones and Kalinda Sharma from The Good Wife. 15% of LGBT characters this season are people of color. Once again, there aren't any Black LGBT regular or recurring characters on scripted primetime broadcast television this year. In fact there aren't any recurring LGBT people of color on primetime broadcast scripted television this year.
The number of regular LGBT characters counted on cable networks also decreased from 35 last year to 28 this year. However, the number of recurring characters counted actually increased from 18 to 26. Diversity among LGBT characters on cable is somewhat more accurately representative of the community than on broadcast networks. 63% of characters are male and 37% are women. In terms of racial identity, the LGBT characters on cable are more diverse than on broadcast; 72% of characters are White, 13% are Black, 7% are Asian/Pacific Islander, 4% are Latino/a and 4% are considered "other." In total people of color make up 28% of LGBT characters compared to 15% on broadcast networks. While gay men still make up the majority of LGBT characters on cable, bisexual men and transgender people have more of a presence here than on the broadcast networks.
Grey’s Anatomy’s Jessica Capshaw
‘Dr. Arizona Robbins’ and
Sara Ramirez ‘Dr. Callie Torres,’ ABC
The 2011-2012 season will see a slight drop in the number of dramatic series featuring LGBT characters on broadcast television. While last year 11 drama series were inclusive, this year only brings nine. This drop can be explained by the cancellation of several series as well as the departure of some LGBT characters. ABC will have three inclusive dramas, while NBC and The CW will have two, and CBS and Fox will each air one.
All of the inclusive dramas on NBC are new. While last year the network had three inclusive programs in that genre, Dr. George Huang left Law & Order: SVU and Undercovers and Outlaw were both cancelled. The two new programs this season are quite different. Smash is a mid-season program about the behind the scenes work to bring a Broadway musical to life and includes a gay composer as a main character. The other new inclusive program is the period drama The Playboy Club, which features bunny Alice, a closeted lesbian nightclub worker married to a gay man named Sean. While the two have to keep their orientation hidden, they are also members of the Mattachine Society, one of the country's first LGBT advocacy groups. Viewers can expect to see meetings reenacted on the program.
ABC's Grey's Anatomy will return for an eighth season, and features newlywed doctors Callie and Arizona. This year, the couple will focus on raising their baby and, according to show creator Shonda Rhimes, they will get a break from life-changing storylines. ABC will also be premiering GCB (Good Christian Belles) at midseason, a Texas-based comedic drama about a high school "mean girl" who returns home following several years of exile in Los Angeles and is forced to face the former classmates she tormented during her teenage years. One of these women is married to a closeted gay man who has a recurring boyfriend during the first season. There will also reportedly be a new recurring LGBT character on Revenge later in the season. Sadly Brothers & Sisters, one of the few programs depicting an older LGBT character ended this past spring, while The Whole Truth was cancelled last year.
CBS' only LGBT series regular can be found on The Good Wife. Bisexual investigator Kalinda Sharma will return in a supporting role this season. Last year, viewers were introduced to Owen, the lead character's gay brother who will be recurring and will get a boyfriend this season.
The CW will continue to air its remake of 90210, including bisexual character Adrianna Tate-Duncan, though her orientation was barely addressed during the past season. Sadly, Teddy Montgomery has been downgraded to recurring status, but he might find a possible love interest in Shane, a guest-starring marriage equality advocate. In addition, the network's already successful new drama, Ringer, is expected to reveal a prominent LGBT character sometime in its first season.
With Dr. Remy "Thirteen" Hadley expected to appear in just a few episodes of House, Fox's only inclusive dramatic series is Bones, featuring bisexual forensic artist Angela Montenegro, who has married a man.
Allen Gregory’s French Stewart
‘Richard,’ Nat Faxon ‘Jeremy’
and Jonah Hill ‘Allen Gregory
This year, eleven programs will make up the slate of inclusive programs in the comedy genre on primetime broadcast television. Hellcats (The CW), Running Wilde (Fox) and $#*! My Dad Says (CBS) are not returning this season. The additional inclusive comedy programs on broadcast television this year are Allen Gregory (Fox), an animated series about a hyper-intelligent seven-year-old being raised by a gay couple, and an unidentified broadcast comedy that will out a character later in the season.
Fox has the most inclusive comedies with five, of which four are animated series. In addition to Allen Gregory, The Cleveland Show features Cleveland’s bisexual coworker Terry, The Simpsons includes gay personal assistant Waylon Smithers and Marge’s lesbian sister Patty, and American Dad has gay couple Greg and Terry and “omnisexual” alien Roger. The network also airs the widely successful musical comedy Glee, which introduced several new LGBT characters during the past season. Santana Lopez came out as a lesbian, her friend Brittany now identifies as bisexual, and Kurt Hummel found a love interest in Blaine Anderson, who is now a series regular.
Following Fox is ABC, which should be commended for its excellent portrayal of gay men in some of the most inclusive comedy series on television. Cameron and Mitchell are in a loving and committed relationship on Modern Family, and this year they will decide whether or not to adopt a new sibling for daughter Lily. Happy Endings, which includes the stereotype defying gay character Max, will be back for its sophomore run, while Desperate Housewives and its several gay recurring characters will return for one final season.
NBC and CBS each air one inclusive comedy. The successful program The Office (NBC) is returning for an eighth season following the departure of Regional Manager Michael Scott and continues to feature openly gay accountant Oscar Martinez. The CBS program Rules of Engagement is expected to bring back surrogate mother and lesbian softball player Brenda as a recurring character. The CW’s only comedy series last year, Hellcats, was cancelled, and the network has not announced any new scripted comedies for the fall season.
Degrassi’s Jordan Todosey
‘Adam Torres,’ TeenNick
After a spike last year in LGBT series regulars on mainstream cable, the number of out characters has fallen back to a figure similar to 2009’s count. Only 28 regular characters were counted this year, whereas last year, 35 of the regular characters on cable were lesbian, gay, bisexual or transgender. In 2007, 2008 and 2009, the counts were respectively 40, 32 and 25. GLAAD also counted 26 recurring characters. Due to cable networks’ scheduling differences, GLAAD includes programs that have started or will start between June 1, 2011 and May 31, 2012 for which casting has been confirmed by networks.
HBO currently holds the highest number of LGBT representations on mainstream cable with 11 regular or recurring characters. The network has maintained a stellar record of featuring prominent LGBT images through programs such as Sex & the City, True Blood, Game of Thrones, and Entourage. Not far behind is Showtime with 10 regular or recurring characters. HBO also takes the lead in terms of regular characters (7), six, thanks mainly to the diverse vampires , witches and witches and werewolves of True Blood. Other LGBT-inclusive networks include ABC Family, FX and TeenNick with four characters each as well as TNT and BBC America with three.
Last year, based on our character count we found True Blood to be the most inclusive scripted show on television. This past season featured six regular and recurring gay, lesbian, and bisexual characters, which was enough to tie True Blood with the newer Showtime series Shameless (Due to True Blood’s air dates, three LGBT characters that might not return next season were counted in this report; additionally, Russell Edgington was not counted even though he is expected to return in the program’s fifth season). Expected to return in January, Shameless is based on a British series about a group of siblings forced to raise themselves due to negligent parenting, and it features gay teenager Ian and at least five recurring gay, lesbian, and bisexual characters. The next runner-up is probably Degrassi: The Next Generation on TeenNick, which features four LGBT characters and is also the only program with a lead, supporting or recurring transgender character on primetime scripted television: transgender teenager Adam Torres.
Significant scripted additions to scripted cable include the highly anticipated Ryan Murphy drama American Horror Story (FX) about a dysfunctional family moving into a haunted house previously owned by a now deceased gay couple. TV Land introduced the new comedy Happily Divorced this year, based on Fran Drescher’s real-life past marriage to a man who eventually came out as gay. This summer also brought a new series from VH1. Its first hour-long scripted series, Single Ladies, includes a regular gay character of color named Omar Kearse. Finally, one of television’s few bisexual male characters, Torchwood: Miracle Day’s Captain Jack Harkness, moved from BBC America to Starz, while Warehouse 13 (Syfy) introduced gay agent Steve Jinks.
Characters on networks Logo and here! have traditionally not been included in the yearly character count for GLAAD’s Where We Are on TV report since their primary focus is already on LGBT programming, and they’ve recently focused on producing almost exclusively unscripted content. While here! has announced it will bring back Dante’s Cove this fall, casting has yet to start for the new season. In addition, Logo recently aired a new season of the scripted comedy Exes & Ohs, which followed six central lesbian and bisexual characters. Both networks should be applauded for their significant and extensive contributions to LGBT representations on television.
Though not technically cable, PBS will be airing the second season of the inclusive British drama Downton Abbey, but this network is not counted among Broadcast networks in this report due to variations in programming among PBS stations. Nevertheless, the duplicitous gay butler Thomas in this Emmy-winning series is still worthy of mentioning.
*Due to True Blood’s air dates, three LGBT characters that might not return next season were counted in this report; additionally, Russell Edgington was not counted even though he is expected to return in the program’s fifth season
The Playboy Club’s Leah Renee
This year broadcast networks have once again failed to reflect our country’s gender ratio. While women make up over half of the population, only 43% of series regulars on scripted primetime shows are female; a number slightly higher than last year’s 41%. The only broadcast network to accurately reflect the higher percentage of women in the population is ABC with 51.4% of female characters, while CBS lags behind at 35.8%.
The lack of gender diversity is even more disparate when it comes to lesbian and bisexual characters as they make up only 33% of LGBT representations on primetime broadcast scripted series. Of the 33 LGBT characters counted on scripted broadcast primetime television, five (16%) are lesbians and six (19%) are bisexual women. While the count of lesbian and bisexual women remains steady from last year, those percentages have increased as a result of the drop in the number of gay and bisexual male characters on scripted broadcast television. Twenty-two (66.7%) of the 33 LGBT characters are male. 60.6% (20) of those 33 are gay men, while Terry on The Cleveland Show (Fox) is the sole bisexual man on scripted primetime broadcast television; alien Roger on American Dad (Fox) would probably be best described as male and "omnisexual."
When it comes to regular lesbian representations, Dr. Arizona Robbins on Grey’s Anatomy (ABC) is joined by the recently out Santana Lopez on Glee (Fox) and newcomer Alice on The Playboy Club (NBC), which is an increase from the two regular lesbian characters counted in 2010. The regular bisexual female characters consist of Callie Torres on Grey’s Anatomy (ABC), Adrianna Tate-Duncan on 90210 (The CW), Angela Montenegro on Bones (Fox), Kalinda Sharma on The Good Wife (CBS) and the other character who came out on Glee (Fox) this year, Brittany S. Pierce. It is also important to note that there aren’t any regular or recurring transgender characters on primetime broadcast scripted television this year.
In regards to cable television, the LGBT gender divide remains unbalanced though slightly better than on the broadcast networks. Of the 54 total LGBT characters, 20 (37%) are female, a significant increase from last year’s 32%.There are 14 lesbian characters on cable, which is much higher than on the broadcast networks, while bisexual women are made up of six characters. This summer’s season of True Blood (HBO) saw Tara Thornton come out as bisexual and featured her girlfriend Naomi and vampires Pam and Nan. The popular teen drama Pretty Little Liars (ABC Family) continues to feature lead character Emily Fields and her recently returned ex-girlfriend Maya St. Germain. Shameless (Showtime) features three lesbian and bisexual women in recurring roles: Monica Gallagher, Bob, and Jess. It’s also likely that there will be another female character to count on that show after its second season gets underway. Sadly, this year also brings the departure of several characters, including Kelly on HawthoRNe (TNT) who was counted in this report but will not be back next year as the program was cancelled.
As for male characters, gay men make up the majority of LGBT characters again. Of the 54 LGBT characters on scripted cable television, 29 (54%) are gay men, while four (7%) are bisexual males.
Cable television brings us the only regular or recurring transgender character in Adam Torres from Degrassi: The Next Generation (TeenNick). Torres was introduced to viewers in 2010 and remains the lone transgender character in primetime scripted television. No network has announced plans to bring another regular or recurring transgender character to the small screen.
True Blood’s Rutina Wesley
‘Tara Thornton,’ HBO
This year, overall ethnic diversity on primetime broadcast scripted series has dropped, with 21.9% of 647 series regulars being people of color (POC), a slight decrease from last year’s 23%. Fox now leads in overall racial diversity with 26% of regular characters being POC. NBC saw a major drop from last year (32and is now in second place with 25%. CBS saw a slight increase from 18% to 19%, while ABC dropped from 26% to 23%, and The CW remains steady and last at 10%.
In regard to LGBT people of color, figures also dropped with 15% of LGBT characters being racially diverse, compared to 19% last year. Of the 33 regular or recurring characters counted on broadcast, three are Latino/a, two are Asian/Pacific Islander and none are Black. The only new LGBT regular or recurring LGBT character who is not white this year is Santana Lopez, who came out as lesbian this past season on Glee (Fox). The drop in LGBT people of color on broadcast television this year is attributed to the cancellation of The Whole Truth (ABC) and the departure of Dr. George Huang from Law & Order: SVU (NBC).
On cable television, LGBT people of color are more accurately represented, as 28% (15) of the 54 characters are POC. This year brings the addition of Tara Thornton, who came out as bisexual, on True Blood (HBO). Another Black character, Omar Kearse, made his debut on the new VH1 drama Single Ladies, while MTV’s Teen Wolf introduced a recurring Asian-Pacific Islander character, Danny. Some of the other significant returning LGBT people of color on cable are Emily Fields (joined once again by ex-girlfriend Maya St. Germain) on Pretty Little Liars (ABC Family), Lafayette Reynolds and his boyfriend Jesus Velasquez on True Blood (HBO), and Diana Barrigan on White Collar (USA). While Lloyd Lee from Entourage (HBO) was counted in this report, the series has now ended.
Nurse Jackie's Stephen Wallem
For the second year in a row, GLAAD also conducted a count of people with disabilities (PWD) amongst series regular characters. In 2008, the American Community Survey conducted by the US Census Bureau found that 12% (36.2 million people) of U.S. citizens report living with an apparent disability. In its count GLAAD included characters covered under the American Disabilities Act (ADA) which includes people living with non-apparent disabilities, such as cancer or HIV/AIDS. Inclusion of those disabilities would greatly increase the figures found by the U.S. Census Bureau. Yet, scripted primetime broadcast television has failed to reflect those demographic figures. Slightly less than 1% (5) of series regulars on broadcast networks are depicted as living with a disability. All five of the characters are white, and four are male. This is also one less character than was counted last year.
Once again, the majority of PWD series regulars are on Fox: the title character on House uses a cane, another on Glee is in a wheelchair, while a character on Raising Hope lives with Alzheimer's. CBS has a character on CSI: Crime Scene Investigation who has prosthetic legs and NBC features a character with Aspergers on Parenthood. The cancellation of Brothers and Sisters on ABC means the network is left without any PWD regular characters, and the only LGBT character with a disability on scripted primetime broadcast television is no longer on the air. The CW, just like ABC, currently doesn't feature any regular characters with disabilities.
Showtime continues to feature the only LGBT characters with a disability on cable, Thor Lundgren of Nurse Jackie, who is diabetic and has a prosthetic eye and the newly introduced Lee on The Big C, who has cancer.
This research was done in conjunction with the Tri-Union I AM PWD (Inclusion in the Arts & Media of People With Disabilities) campaign of Actors' Equity Association, AFTRA and SAG (IAMPWD.org)
America's Next Top Model's
Isis King, The CW
Casting for reality programming is rarely announced early enough to include a complete count of cast members for the entire next year of programming in the Where We Are on TV report. However, these shows frequently feature some of the most diverse representations of the LGBT community, and this year is no exception.
While there aren't any transgender characters on scripted broadcast primetime television, two prominent reality programs on broadcast will feature transgender contestants this year. LGBT advocate and author Chaz Bono is partnering with Lacey Schwimmer on the popular ABC program Dancing With the Stars, where he is joined by openly gay stylist Carson Kressley in the competition. Meanwhile, transgender model Isis King returned for The CW's all-star edition of America's Next Top Model, in addition to lesbian contestant Kayla Ferrel. Though its scripted programs have rarely featured LGBT characters in recent years, the reality programming on CBS is routinely very inclusive. This year gay contestants are competing on both Survivor: South Pacific and The Amazing Race.
Cable television features many LGBT representations on a variety of reality programs. Bravo remains the leader in inclusive reality programming with such shows as Work of Art, Flipping Out, the Top Chef franchise, Most Eligible: Dallas, Million Dollar Listings and Tabatha's Salon Takeover. Other notable inclusive reality programs include HGTV's Design Star, TLC's NY Ink, Oxygen's The Glee Project, Planet Green's The Fabulous Beekman Boys, Lifetime's Project Runway, MTV's The Real World, Sundance's Girls Who Like Boys Who Like Boys and Syfy's Ghost Hunters.
The cable network Logo specializes in programming aimed at an LGBT audience and has steadily increased its slate of reality programs in recent years following the success of RuPaul's competition programs Drag Race and Drag U. Last year saw the introduction of The A List: New York which is followed by its Dallas counterpart this year. Also introduced last year and returning this year is 1 Girl, 5 Gays, a popular discussion show imported from Canada, while 2011 brought Setup Squad, a reality show set at an agency of dating consultants.
Days of Our Lives' Freddie Smith
'Sonny Kiriakis,' NBC
The ratings struggles faced by daytime dramas have caused a decline in the number of programs still on the small screen during the past year. The move of All My Children (ABC) to an online format means one of the longest standing LGBT characters on television, Bianca Montgomery, is being taken off the air. Days of our Lives (NBC) - another popular drama - introduced a new gay character when Sonny Kiriakis came out to his family over the summer after he returned to the fictional town of Salem. Another notable daytime character is Rafe Torres who has been a part of The Young and the Restless (CBS) cast since 2008, while Phillip Chancellor III could always make a return appearance as well. Historically, the genre has made important strides in LGBT representation and hopefully LGBT storylines will remain a part of daytime dramas despite these recent setbacks.
When it comes to daytime talk shows, the highest profiled newcomer this year is actually a returning host, Rosie O'Donnell, who will premiere The Rosie Show on OWN this fall. O'Donnell first hosted her own show from 1996 to 2002 and was a co-host of The View (ABC) in 2006 and 2007. Other lesbian personalities are hosting talk shows as well. Actress Sara Gilbert is a producer and co-host of The Talk (CBS), and Ellen DeGeneres just kicked off the ninth season of The Ellen DeGeneres Show (syndicated). Also returning this year is The Nate Berkus Show (syndicated), hosted by out interior designer Nate Berkus, while ABC will introduce The Chew, a food-related talk show featuring out co-host Clinton Kelly.
El Ultimo Matrimonio Feliz’s
David Galindo ‘Alcides Nino’
This year marks the first time GLAAD has incorporated a Spanish-language media chapter into the Where We Are on TV report. With the sudden changes in lineup among Spanish-language networks, it can be challenging to accurately include a character count for the upcoming season. However, networks have and continue to feature a variety of inclusive storylines in their telenovelas and daytime talk shows that bring additional visibility to the Latino/a LGBT community found on broadcast and cable television.
Not many regular or recurring characters have been announced for the coming season, but El Último Matrimonio Feliz (RCN) is gearing up for a gay arc. Additionally, the talk shows Caso Cerrado (Telemundo) and Casos de Familia (Univision) often feature LGBT guests. Over the past few years, other notable programs have featured LGBT characters, including RPM Miami (Mun2) which had a bisexual detective, Ana Karina, and the very inclusive ¿Dónde Está Elisa? (Telemundo) that followed a romantic relationship between two gay characters.
This research was done in conjunction with GLAAD's Spanish-Language Media team, Monica Trasandes, Director of Spanish-Language Media; Brian Pacheco, Spanish-Language Media Strategist; Daniel Alvarenga, Spanish-Language Media Fellow.