Gay parents are judged more harshly. A key theme of the campaign to overturn the Defense of Marriage Act is the act's effect on gay parents, who under current law cannot be legally recognized by the federal government. Even if DOMA is overturned based on oral arguments being heard on Wednesday at the Supreme Court, however, gay couples may still find themselves facing other challenges, according to a group of researchers at Binghamton University, who say that same-sex parents are often judged more severely than their straight counterparts. "When parents displayed favorable parenting behaviors like comforting an upset child, gay and straight parents were judged in a similar, positive manner," on the researchers said. But, "if parents got frustrated — raised their voice or slapped their child on the hand, the gay parents were judged more negatively than the straight parents."